Electric vehicle charging - EV wall charger

Loading poles are available in various types with various charging options and different lengths of the cables. Not every type of electric car can be charged with any type of loading cable. It is important to know a number of things around a load cable before ordering one.

A electric vehicle charging cable ensures that you can connect your car to the load station to charge the electric car in this way. There is a charging station with a type 1 plug and a type 2 plug. The type of plug connector that fits on a particular electric car again.

Each station has a "mode" in addition to a certain type of plug. The modes used are mode 2 and mode 3. In mode 2 charging via a current limiter, with Schuko plug. In mode 3, the car is charged when the correct, controlled amount of power is matched between the car and the charger, and the cable is also locked during charging.

When purchasing a charging station it is important that you are aware of the suitable type of plug for your electric car. This concerns the type 1 and type 2 plugs. You also have to choose the type of loading method, via a mode 2 or a mode 3.

Electric vehicle charging - EV wall charger

The simplest way is the one where the car is plugged in with a household plug as we know it from other electric devices. Unlike a mobile phone or a laptop, the rectifier is located here on board the vehicle. This mode of loading will load mode 1 called.

Because with V2G from very important is that the used circuit is well secured and this does not work with mode 1 is assured, mode 1 will no longer be loaded applied for electric cars. In some countries (including US, Israel and Canada) mode 1 loading is even prohibited by law. If it has to be loaded via a standard outlet, offers mode 2 loading the solution.

With mode 2 drawers is also used made from a standard household socket, but is there in the charging cable an In Cable Control Box (ICCB). In this ICCB has a differential switch and a flow restriction. This ensures, on condition of good grounding, always for good protection of the downstream installation (V2G charging cable and electric car) when loading.

Because with mode 2 drawers use is made of household sockets, it is important to limit the EV wall charger current somewhat. Household Outlets are not designed to last regularly long time to be charged with a high current. By a regular long-term load with a high current, the contact sockets in the outlet, causing the socket to heat up dangerously.

Electric vehicle charging - EV wall charger

To load the car faster, mode 3 drawers have been developed. This is used made of sockets and plugs that are specifically designed for V2G. The socket is built-in in a charging point that becomes a fixed component of the electrical home installation.

With mode 3 charging, there is continuous communication between the loading point and the electric car, which ensures a safe load process. By use to make mode 3 drawers an average electric car can be easy 60% faster loading because higher currents are permissible and multiple phases can be used.

For version 2013 from the Nissan Leaf, for example, Nissan reports that charging an empty battery via mode 2 load an average of 10 hours, compared with an average of 4 hours at mode 3 loading. Another the advantage of mode 3 loading is that some fashion 3 charging points can be set that the loading only starts at night rate.

Electric vehicle charging - EV wall charger

Some electric vehicles can also charge fast or mode 4 drawers (DC charging). With AC charging (mode 1, 2 and 3) the rectifier is positioned around the alternating voltage of the electricity grid to form to DC voltage for the battery in the car.

Load at mode 4 however, the rectifier is in the load station, what makes this an expensive installation susceptible to vandalism. The high cost price and the high payload make this installation unsuitable for home charging.

Fast charging does not cause damage the battery pack to a charging speed, where the payload is 1.5 to 2 times the energy content of the battery pack. For a car with a battery pack This means that there is no problem with 24 kWh can be charged to a capacity of 36 to 48 kW. Loading with higher capacities can extend the lifespan of the batteries.

These values ​​are guideline values ​​for the large group of Li-ion batteries. Please for information about a certain car always the information of the car manufacturer to consult. It depends on the battery how long your car is charging. A 'normal' charging station charges 15 km / h and has a capacity of 3.7 KW. The power of a fast-charging station is maxed 50 KW. The superfast belts (superchargers) from Tesla have a capacity of 60 KW or more.

Electric vehicle charging - EV wall charger

A house connection often has 3 x 25 ampere power. There will then be 3 times 230 volts. If you want to increase this capacity (to 3 x 35 ampere), your standing costs (periodic connection fee) will be higher. A charging station draws 16 ampere power from 1 group.

On this group there is still 9 ampere left when the car is plugged in. For the Tesla that is 3 x 16 amperes. The box from Maxem has been placed for this (box between the charging station and the smart meter). Maxem is an energy management system. To ensure that the demand and the supply are attuned to each other without the plugs being knocked out.

Is the Tesla loading and is there a deep fryer in the house (large energy demand)? Then the Maxem box ensures that the charging of the car is temporarily turned off / down. Pay attention to the group to which the charging station is connected. "

With a 3-phase network connection, up to 11 kWh or 54 km / h can be charged. In one night you can fully charge the car (source: Tesla). It is important to know the capacity of the battery of the car that needs to be charged.

Electric vehicle charging - EV wall charger

Solar panels EV generate direct current (DC). Normally, this direct current from the PV panels had to be converted into alternating current (AC) before you could start charging an electric car. Charging stations currently use the 50Hz alternating current network to exchange power between the solar modules and the vehicle.

However, this is not efficient and cost-effective, for two reasons: converting to AC voltage leads to unnecessary conversion steps and losses. And secondly, two separate DC-AC converters are needed, one for the vehicle and one for the Photovoltaic panels EV, which increases the costs and size.

A more obvious solution is therefore to use one inverter that can charge the vehicle from the panels via a DC link and also has a connection to the AC power supply. Therefore, a 10 kW transformer with an internal DC link and three terminals was designed for this study, which can charge the vehicle both from the photovoltaic modules and from the power supply. '

Electric vehicle charging - EV wall charger

With this charger, the power supply is no longer required as an intermediate step to charge. In addition, the system works in two ways: not only can you charge your electric car with solar power, but the energy from the (charged) battery of the car can also be used to supply your house with electricity. In addition, it is also possible to return electricity to the electricity grid, but that still has to be done after conversion to alternating current.

A nice example for Charging an electric car with PV panels is a solar pv carport.